3 Countries That Rebelled in the Ottoman Era during the First World War

3 Countries That Rebelled in the Ottoman Era during the First World War
3 Countries That Rebelled in the Ottoman Era during the First World War

Istanbul - The fall of the Ottomans has a long history. The empire that was able to survive for 600 years was known to have a vast territory.

Quoted from history.com, the Ottoman Empire reached its peak in the 1500s. They have the largest military and economic power in the world and control a region that includes Asia, Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

Several factors in the collapse of this empire were caused by World War I which broke out at that time, coupled with the many rebellions that occurred. This rebellion was carried out by countries that were under the Ottoman Empire. These are the 3 countries that carried out rebellions in the Ottoman era:

Read Also: 3 Allies of the Ottoman Turks in the First World War in 1914

1. Greece

Greece fell into the hands of the Ottoman Turks in 1456. But in this rule the Greeks often fought against their nationalist groups. Two movements launched by Greece were Philike Hetairia and Klephts.

Philike Hetairia, better known as the Friendship Society, consisted of European intellectuals, while the Klephts consisted of residents in mountainous areas who carried out guerrilla tactics against the Turkish troops.

In 1821 the Greek revolutionary movement began, when the entire people of this country united against the Ottoman Turks in its territory. This resistance was successful on January 13, 1822. However, the combined forces of Egypt and Turkey succeeded in conquering Missolonghi in 1826, Athens in 1827, and the Morea region. World War I that occurred, coupled with attacks from the Russian side made the Ottoman Turks weaker.

This was used by Greece to sign the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829, which recognized Greek rule, and the Treaty of London in 1832 to ensure Greek independence after 376 years of Turkish rule.

2. Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabian revolt or better known as the Arab Revolt is based on several factors. One of them is the emergence of ethnic nationalism on both sides. Sharif Hussein bin Ali as the leader of the Bani Hasyim clan was a figure who opposed the Ottoman government.

Coupled with rampant poverty and inter-ethnic conflicts, Saudi Arabia began to be reluctant to sit comfortably in the hands of the Ottoman Turks. The emergence of this Arab revolution coincided with World War I.

Britain as an imperial power began to support the Sharifians in 1914. Britain promised Sharif independence from Ottoman rule. Relations between the two sides began to intensify in 1915, until the British had time to provide financial assistance and weapons in 1916.

The Ottoman Turks who followed World War I were used by Sharif Hussein's troops to move into rebellion in 1916. This rebellion took place on June 5, 1916 in the city of Medina and continued in the city of Mecca on June 10, 1916.

During this war the Arabs received assistance from the British who sent Egyptian troops. This struggle paid off on July 9, 1916, when the city of Mecca was conquered by the Arabs. Furthermore, the Arabs again received British assistance to get other cities such as Jeddah, Yanbu, Rabigh, Ta'if and al-Qunfundhah.

3. Bulgaria

The Ottomans conquered Bulgaria in the late 14th century. Disliking the oppression of the Ottomans, Bulgaria began to rise. The feudal oppression of the Ottoman regime on the peasants made them oppose the established policies. In 1849, in the western regions of the Balkans and the Danube, preparations for an uprising had begun.

The initial battles of the Bulgarian uprising took place between 27 May and 8 June 1850. The Bulgarian uprising involved a total of ten thousand peasants. In the battle there were about seven hundred people who died. This rebellion had received assistance from Russia.

Even so the Ottomans were still too strong. Even about three thousand farmers, women and children were killed. Although Bulgaria's efforts failed many times, the rebels in the north west of Bulgaria were victorious as agrarian relations in the country changed. The country was finally able to achieve independence in 1850 when the Ottoman Empire weakened.

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